This program components deal with the main population issues in the country. The RP/FP program component deals with issues related to sexual and reproductive health, including fertility and family planning concerns. It primarily aims to help couples to realize their desired timing, spacing and number of children in accordance with their socioeconomic, emotional and psychological capacity.
KEY RP, RH and FP OUTCOME ISSUES
The prevailing issues on RP, RH and FP create serious conditions that affect individual and family well-being and development. The priority issues under the RP, RH and FP program component:
1. HIGH FERTILITY ESPECIALLY AMONG POOR and LESS EDUCATED WOMEN
The average actual number of children of Filipino women is 3.3, which is a 1 child more than what they want, which is, 2.4 children. Poor women have 5.2 children, women with elementary education have 4.5 children, and those with secondary education have 3.5 children. They also have 2 children more than what they want.
2. HIGH UNINTENDED and UNPLANNED PREGNANCIES
As reported by the 2008 NDHS, about one in five births in the last three years was mistimed (20%) and not wanted at all (16%). Darroch et al., in a study on the causes and consequences of unintended pregnancy and induced abortion in the Philippines, found that an estimated 3.4 million pregnancies occurred in 2008 and 54 percent of these pregnancies or about 1.9 million were unintended. Among those who pursued their pregnancies to term, 55 percent experienced a mistimed birth and 55 percent had not wanted a baby at all the time of conception. About 41 percent of pregnant women who experienced unwanted births, and 17 percent of those whose pregnancies were mistimed, resorted to induced abortions.
3. LOW CONTRACEPTIVES USE and HIGH UNMET NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING
The 2008 NDHS reported a 22 percent total unmet need for family planning, with 9 percent for spacing births and 13 percent for limiting births. This is an increase from the 17 percent unmet need in 2003. Total unmet need was higher in rural areas (16.4% than in urban areas(14.9). The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in the country increased insignificantly from 48.9 percent in 2003 to 50.7 percent in 2008. The increase in contraceptive use among women has been steadily low since 1993, increasing by just about 4 percent in a decade. Data from the 2008 NDHS show that 34 percent of currently married 15-49 years old women used modern methods of contraception and 17 percent used any traditional method. Pills continued to be the most preferred method with 16 percent, while only about 9 percent went for female sterilization. Condom use by men remained low with only 2.3 percent prevalence.
4. HIGH MATERNAL DEATHS
The latest data provided by the family Health Survey in 2011 show that about 221 mothers for every 100,000 live births are dying due to complications related to pregnancy and childbirth. Although this indicates a decline of 10 points from the maternal mortality ratio of 172 in 1998, the very slow pace of decline makes it impossible for the country to achieve its goal of improving maternal health by
2015 unless radical and aggressive interventions are set in place.
5. LOW INVOLVEMENT OF MEN IN RP, RH and FP
Men's decisions affects the reproductive health and parenting decisions of women. Their decisions sometimes negatively impact on the reproductive health of women as they lack a sense of responsibility for their sexual behaviors and give little support to the health of mothers especially during pregnancy.
It is state of being a Parent:
* Traditionally, it means being a father and mother of your Biological child;
* When adoption is involved, it means the legal father and mother (couple of the child;
* A commitment to ensure the well-being of the family and to enable each to fully develop one's capabilities and potentials;
* The will and the ability of parents to respond to the needs and aspirations of the family children;
* It is the ability of the parents to raise children and to satisfy the social and religious responsibilities of the family;
* The series of decisions couples make to ensure the best possible life for the family and for the community they belong to; and
* The process of deciding how many children to have and when to have them.
DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF PARENTS
1. PROVISION OF PHYSICAL CARE AND LOVE
* physical, emotional, and mental health of children depends on the quality of parental care.
* Keeping children healthy, hugging, cuddling and playing with them.
2. INCULCATING DISCIPLINE
* Children are trained to think and reason out for themseves.
* able to distinguish between right and wrong.
* learn nto accept limitations; value freedom with responsibility
* understand the requirements of living happily & peacefully with other people.
3. DEVELOPING SOCIAL COMPETENCE
* Social competence can only be achieved if children have high self-esteem
Self- esteem of children can be developed by:
* Allowing children to do things on their own
* Think for themselves
* Make decisions in accordance with their level of development
* Self- confidence is an important competent of social competence
*Proivide suitable learning experience to hasten mental development as early as infancy
*Help children discover and develop their innate talents and abilities.
* Send them to school and provide for their schooling
5. CITIZENSHIP TRAINING
* Teaching children sense of nationhood and commitment to their country
* Developing in them pride of their own culture and appreciation,promotion and protection of the beauty of our country
* Teaching them to get involved in national development
6. TEACHING THE WISE USE OF MONEY
*Teaching children the value of money, thrift and self-reliance
7. FINANCIAL ASPECT OF RESPONSIBILITY
* Responsibility of parents to provide other minimum basic needs of children such as:
1. Happy home and family environment
3. Nutritious food that are not necessarily expensive
4. Health care
NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING(NFP)METHODS OR FERTILITY AWARENESS BASED (FAB) METHODS
* Involves the determination of the fertile and infertile periods of a woman within the menstrual cycle.
* Effectiveness depend on the couples ability to identify fertile and infertile periods and motivation to practice abstinence when required
CERVICAL MUCUS METHOD(CMM) or BILLINGS OVULATION METHOD(BOM)
The observation of wet and dry sensations in the vulva. The feeling of wetness and the presence of mucus secretion which is wet, slippery and clear indicate a fertile period
BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE METHOD
Based on woman's menstrual cycle. It entails the daily taking and recording of the woman's temperature after 3 hours of continuous sleep. A woman needs to take her temperature everyday, first thing in the morning, before she gets out of bed.
Identifying the fertile and infertile days of menstrual cycle as determined through a combination of observations made on the cervical, BBT recording and other signs of ovulation.
STANDARD DAYS METHOD (SDM)
The Standard Days Method identifies days 8-19 of the menstrual cycle as the fertile days, when there is a significant probability of pregnancy. On all the other days of the cycle, pregnancy is most unlikely. The method works best for women who have cycles between 26 and 32 days long.